Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.7 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations.Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages (Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Phoenician), the Ancient South Arabian languages, and various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic.The Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar.The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic.It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media.To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.
Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Maltese, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa.
For the various vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. Arabic alphabet Arabic Braille Syriac alphabet (Garshuni) Hebrew alphabet (Judeo-Arabic languages) Greek alphabet (Cypriot Maronite Arabic) Latin script (Romanized Arabic alphabet, Maltese alphabet) (Maltese, Lebanese Arabic, Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
The last two share important isoglosses with later forms of Arabic, leading scholars to theorize that Safaitic and Hismaic are in fact early forms of Arabic and that they should be considered Old Arabic.
Beginning in the 1st century CE, fragments of Northern Old Arabic are attested in the Nabataean script across northern Arabia.