Surnames which are 'patronymic' are those which originally enshrined the father's name - such as Jackson, or Jenkinson.
(259 bearers in the 1881 Census, mainly resident in Norfolk; 516 bearers in 2011) – This is a locative surname (deriving from a place), from East or West Beckham in Norfolk.
Just under a quarter are relationship names such as Dawson.
One in five started as nicknames – Fox, Goodfellow – and about one in 12 describe occupations, such as Baker, Tanner or Smith.
The team analysed records from published and unpublished sources dating from the 11th to the 19th century to enable new and detailed explanations of names that is much more reliable and up to date than those currently available.
As the population grows, common surnames are getting even more widespread.
Rather than originating from an unidentified place in northern England, this is a locative surname of Scottish origin.
Palin originating from the north-west Midlands, is from a late Middle English development of the surname Paulin, a diminutive form of Paul.
The research revealed that around half of names are derived from places, such as Sutton or Green.It derives from Sanskrit cakravartī, literally meaning ‘wheels rolling’, but used metaphorically for a ruler whose chariot wheels roll everywhere without obstruction.(1,027 bearers in the 1881 Census, mainly resident in Gloucestershire; 1,165 bearers in 2011) – While this name has been included in previous surname dictionaries, it has not been satisfactorily explained. Finberg (1957) that the Clutterbucks had fled from Holland in the sixteenth century.The researchers found that Hawkins may mean 'son of Ralph', as does Dawkins.Pritchard originated in Wales and denoted a forefather called Richard.