Nevertheless, the manner in which clinicians and educators view the disorder remains quite disparate; in North America, Canada, and Australia, such children have ADHD, a developmental disorder, whereas in Europe they are viewed as having conduct problem or disorder, a behavioral disturbance believed to arise largely out of family dysfunction and social disadvantage. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 798-801. By the 1970s, research emphasized the problems with sustained attention and impulse control in addition to hyperactivity (Douglas, 1972). This course will equip clinicians to have a basic understanding of the nature of ADHD, the history of the disorder, its causes, and its associated disorders and impairments. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 183-207. This course provides an overview of the nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, briefly considers its history, describes its developmental course and outcomes, and discusses its causes. It has since been updated most recently in January 2013. This theory shows that ADHD involves more than just attention deficits – it also comprises central problems with inhibition, self-regulation, and the cross-temporal organization of social behavior, the phenotypic effects of which radiate outward to impact various zones of social, educational, and occupational functioning. Weikard was a prominent German physician who described symptoms of distractibility, poor persistence, impulsive actions, and inattention more generally quite similar to the symptoms used today to describe the inattention associated with ADHD. (This course was initially adapted with permission from the chapter by R. This text was followed by that of the Scottish physician Alexander Crichton in 1798, who provided even more detailed descriptions of this sort of inattention as well as identifying a second disorder of attention thought to involve low power to focus attention (Palmer & Finger, 2001). Even so, within a few years of the creation of the label ADD, concern arose that the important features of hyperactivity and impulse control were being de-emphasized when in fact they were critically important to differentiating the disorder from other conditions and to predicting later developmental risks (Barkley, 2006; Barkley et al., 2008; Weiss & Hechtman, 1993).
The field of ADHD grows daily, and new information may emerge that supersedes these course materials. Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Interest in these children arose in North America around the time of the great encephalitis epidemics of 1917-1918. Association of maladaptive parental behavior with psychiatric disorder among parents and their offspring. Children surviving these brain infections had many behavioral problems similar to those comprising contemporary ADHD (Ebaugh, 1923; Hohman, 1922; Stryker, 1925). Research was demonstrating that under conditions of continuous reward, the performances of ADHD children were often indistinguishable from normal children on various lab tasks but when reinforcement patterns shifted to partial reward or to extinction (no reward) conditions, children with ADHD showed significant declines in their performance (Douglas & Parry, 1983, 1994; Parry & Douglas, 1983). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 271-283. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 13-22. It was also observed that deficits in the control of behavior by rules characterized these children (Barkley, 1989a). Humphries, T., Koltun, H., Malone, M., & Roberts, W. Teacher-identified oral language difficulties among boys with attention problems.